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Mean Kinetic Temperature Calculator

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The Mean Kinetic Temperature (MKT) Calculator is a valuable tool used to determine the average temperature of a stored product, taking into account variations in temperature over time. This calculation is particularly crucial in fields where temperature-sensitive products, like pharmaceuticals and food items, are stored or transported. The MKT gives a more accurate representation of the potential effects of temperature fluctuations on product quality than just an average temperature reading.

Purpose and Functionality

The main purpose of the MKT Calculator is to assess the impact of temperature variations on the stability of temperature-sensitive goods. It does this by calculating a single temperature that simulates the total thermal stress experienced by a product. This is especially important in the pharmaceutical industry, where the efficacy of drugs can be compromised by improper storage conditions.


Here's the simplified version of the formula:

MKT=Reference Temperatureln⁡(1Number of Readings×∑(Exp Factor))MKT=ln(Number of Readings1​×∑(Exp Factor))Reference Temperature​


  • Reference Temperature is usually 25°C, but we convert it to Kelvin (so it's 298.15 K).
  • ln means natural logarithm, which is a mathematical function you can find on most calculators.
  • Number of Readings is how many temperature measurements you have.
  • Exp Factor is a bit more complex, but it essentially adjusts each of your temperature readings to reflect how temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions. For each temperature reading, you calculate it as follows:

Exp Factor=(1Temperature in Kelvin−1Reference Temperature in Kelvin)Exp Factor=eREa​​(Temperature in Kelvin1​−Reference Temperature in Kelvin1​)

  • e is the base of the natural logarithm, a constant approximately equal to 2.71828.
  • Ea​ is the activation energy, which is a constant (usually assumed to be 83,144 J/mol for pharmaceuticals).
  • R is the universal gas constant (8.314 J/(mol·K)).
  • Temperature in Kelvin is each of your temperature readings converted to Kelvin.


The Mean Kinetic Temperature (MKT) is a way to find out an average temperature that considers how changes in temperature over time can affect the storage life of a product, especially something sensitive like medicine or food. Here's how you can understand the formula for MKT in simpler terms:

  1. Collect Temperature Readings: You start by gathering a bunch of temperature measurements taken over a certain period. These should be in Kelvin, a temperature scale used by scientists.
  2. Note the Time Intervals: For each temperature reading, you also need to know how long the temperature stayed at that reading.
  3. Calculate Each Part: For every temperature reading, you do a bit of math that involves:
    • Taking the negative of a special number related to how sensitive your product is to temperature changes (this is called the activation energy).
    • Dividing that number by another constant number (the gas constant) and then by your temperature reading.
    • Taking the exponential (a math function that quickly grows) of the result. This gives you a number that represents how that specific temperature affects your product.
    • Multiplying this number by the length of time the product was at that temperature.
  4. Add Them Up and Average: Add up all the numbers you got from step 3 for each temperature reading and then divide by the total time to get an average.
  5. Final Touch: Take the natural logarithm (another math function) of this average, multiply it by the negative of the gas constant, and then divide by the activation energy. This gives you the MKT.

Steps to Calculate MKT in a Simplified Way:

  1. Convert all your temperatures from Celsius to Kelvin by adding 273.15 to each Celsius temperature.
  2. Calculate the Exp Factor for each temperature reading using the formula given above.
  3. Sum up all the Exp Factors you calculated for each temperature reading.
  4. Divide that sum by the Number of Readings to get the average.
  5. Take the natural logarithm (ln) of this average.
  6. Divide the Reference Temperature in Kelvin (298.15 K) by this logarithm to find the MKT.

This simplified explanation breaks down the MKT calculation into manageable steps, making it easier to understand how each part contributes to the final result.

Step-by-Step Examples

Let's consider a simple example where a product has been stored at three different temperatures over a certain period: 22°C, 25°C, and 30°C. To calculate the MKT:

  1. Convert Temperatures to Kelvin: Add 273.15 to each Celsius reading.
    • 22°C = 295.15 K
    • 25°C = 298.15 K
    • 30°C = 303.15 K
  2. Calculate the Exponent Term for each Ti​ using the MKT formula.
  3. Compute the Average of these exponent terms.
  4. Take the Natural Logarithm of the average.
  5. Divide the Reference Temperature refTref​ by this logarithm to find the MKT.

Information Table

Here's a simplified table showing the temperature readings and their corresponding conversions:

Temperature (°C)Temperature (K)


The MKT Calculator is an indispensable tool for ensuring the quality and stability of temperature-sensitive products. By accounting for temperature variations, it provides a more accurate representation of the thermal stress experienced by products during storage or transit. Its applications extend beyond the pharmaceutical industry, offering benefits to food storage, logistics, and any field where temperature control is crucial for product integrity. By leveraging the MKT calculation, businesses and researchers can make informed decisions to optimize storage conditions and improve product longevity.

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