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2 Phase Simplex Method Calculator

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In the realm of mathematics and operations research, solving linear programming problems is a fundamental task. The 2 Phase Simplex Method Calculator emerges as a sophisticated tool designed to navigate through these challenges efficiently. This calculator not only identifies a feasible basic solution through its first phase but also optimizes the objective function in the second, making it an indispensable resource for students, researchers, and professionals alike.

Purpose and Functionality

The Simplex Method stands as a procedural approach to solve linear programming problems by optimizing a given objective function, subject to certain constraints. The 2 Phase Simplex Method Calculator builds on this foundation, offering a systematic way to handle even the most complex scenarios.

Phase 1: Finding a Feasible Solution

Initially, the calculator focuses on finding a basic feasible solution. This phase involves inputs like objective function coefficients ((c_j)), technological coefficients ((a_{ij})), and right-hand side values ((b_i)), alongside the number of constraints ((m)) and variables ((n)).

  1. Adding Artificial Variables: If constraints are not equalities, artificial variables ((x_{a_i})) are introduced to convert them into equations.
  2. Objective Function for Phase 1: This phase aims to minimize the sum of artificial variables, adjusting the original objective function as necessary.
  3. Simplex Tableau: A tableau incorporating artificial variables and the modified objective function is set up.
  4. Simplex Iterations: Through iterative solving, a feasible solution is pursued until no negative coefficients remain in the objective function row.

Phase 2: Optimizing the Objective Function

Upon establishing a feasible solution, the focus shifts to optimizing the objective function with the final tableau from Phase 1, minus any artificial variable columns.

  1. Reset the Objective Function: The original objective function’s coefficients are reinstated.
  2. Simplex Iterations Continue: The optimization process mirrors Phase 1, with the goal of finding an optimal solution.
  3. Extracting Solution: The calculator finalizes the solution by extracting the values of the variables at the optimal point.

Step-by-Step Example

Imagine a scenario where a company seeks to maximize profit ((Z)) based on the production of two products (variables (x_1) and (x_2)), given certain resource constraints.

  1. Inputs: Objective function coefficients might be the profit per product, technological coefficients represent resource usage per product, and right-hand side values signify total resource availability.
  2. Phase 1 Operations: If necessary, artificial variables are introduced, and a simplex tableau is created to find a feasible starting point.
  3. Phase 2 Optimizations: With a feasible solution at hand, the calculator refines the objective function to maximize profit, navigating through simplex iterations until an optimal solution is determined.

Relevant Information Table

PhaseObjectiveKey Operations
1Find a feasible solutionAdd artificial variables, adjust the objective function, and iteratively solve the simplex tableau.
2Optimize the objective functionReset the objective function and perform simplex iterations to find the optimal solution.


The 2 Phase Simplex Method Calculator is more than just a tool; it’s a bridge to solving complex linear programming problems efficiently. By systematically breaking down the process into two manageable phases, it not only simplifies the approach but also ensures accuracy and reliability in optimization tasks. Whether you’re a student grappling with the fundamentals of linear programming or a professional seeking to optimize operations, this calculator stands as a testament to the power of mathematical precision and technological advancement. Its application spans educational, research, and professional domains, offering a clear path to problem-solving and decision-making excellence.

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