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Bankers Algorithm Calculator

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The Bankers Algorithm Calculator is a practical tool designed to implement the Banker’s Algorithm, which is a resource allocation and deadlock avoidance algorithm. This algorithm is commonly used in operating systems to manage resources without allowing the system to enter a deadlock state. The calculator simplifies the process of determining whether a set of given resource allocation requests will lead to a safe state or a potential deadlock.

Purpose and Functionality

What is the Banker’s Algorithm?

The Banker’s Algorithm is used to avoid deadlock in the management of bank resources. It functions as a safety system to ascertain whether granting a specific request will leave the system in a safe state. A “safe state” implies that there is at least one sequence of processes that can be executed to completion without causing a deadlock.

Key Definitions

Here are a few terms essential for understanding the Banker’s Algorithm:

  • Processes (n): The number of processes participating in the system.
  • Resource types (m): The types of resources (e.g., memory, CPU cycles) available.
  • Available Vector: A vector that records the number of available resources of each type.
  • Max Matrix: An n x m matrix that represents the maximum demand of each process.
  • Allocation Matrix: An n x m matrix that details the number of resources of each type currently allocated to each process.
  • Need Matrix: An n x m matrix that specifies the additional resources required by each process to complete its task.

How It Works

  1. Need Calculation:
  • Formula: Need[i][j] = Max[i][j] - Allocation[i][j]
  • This calculation helps determine the outstanding resources required for each process.
  1. Request Granting Check:
  • A request from a process for resources will only be granted if it satisfies both of the following conditions:
    • The resources requested do not exceed those needed by the process.
    • The resources requested are available.
  1. Safety Check Algorithm:
  • The system tries to find an order of processes where all can complete without any running out of resources. This is done by simulating resource allocation and release by processes and checking system state at each step.

Step-by-Step Example

Consider a system with three processes (P0, P1, P2) and two types of resources (R1, R2).

  • Available Resources: [3, 2]
  • Max Matrix:
  7 5
  3 2
  9 0
  • Allocation Matrix:
  0 1
  2 0
  3 0


  1. Compute Need Matrix:
  • For P0: Need[0][0] = 7-0 = 7, Need[0][1] = 5-1 = 4
  • For P1: Need[1][0] = 3-2 = 1, Need[1][1] = 2-0 = 2
  • For P2: Need[2][0] = 9-3 = 6, Need[2][1] = 0-0 = 0
  • Need Matrix:
    7 4 1 2 6 0
  1. Check for System Safety:
  • The algorithm tests various scenarios of resource request and release to ensure there is a safe sequence. In this example, P1 -> P0 -> P2 is a safe sequence.

Table of Inputs and Results

Processes (n)3
Resource Types (m)2
Available Resources[3, 2]
Max Matrix7 5, 3 2, 9 0
Allocation Matrix0 1, 2 0, 3 0
Need Matrix (Output)7 4, 1 2, 6 0
System Safe State?Yes


The Bankers Algorithm Calculator is a vital tool for systems administrators and developers, providing a quick and reliable means to evaluate potential resource allocation requests against the available resources. By determining possible safe sequences of process execution, this calculator helps prevent system deadlocks, thus ensuring efficient and uninterrupted system operation. Its application is critical in environments where resource allocation needs to be both optimized and safe from deadlock possibilities.

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